"[59], General Martin Dempsey, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said in January 2012 that Iran "has invested in capabilities that could, in fact, for a period of time block the Strait of Hormuz." Haghshenass, Fariborz. Une des perturbations majeures du transport pétrolier remonte à 1984, en plein conflit Iran-Irak (1980-1988), durant la « guerre des pétroliers ». L’hypothèse d’une guerre États-Unis-Iran est même envisagée. Additionally, a closing of the Strait would also have severe consequences for Iran itself. [41], On the morning of 13 June 2019, the oil tankers Front Altair and Kokuka Courageous were both rocked by explosions shortly before dawn, the crew of the latter reported seeing a flying object strike the ship; the crew were rescued by the destroyer USS Bainbridge while the crew of the Front Altair were rescued by Iranian ships. En juillet 1988, un Airbus A300 de la compagnie nationale Iran Air, assurant la liaison entre Bandar Abbas et Dubaï, avait été abattu par deux missiles d’une frégate américaine qui patrouillait dans le détroit : 290 personnes avaient été tuées. [57][58], Captain John Kirby, a Pentagon spokesman, was quoted in a December 2011 Reuters article: "Efforts to increase tension in that part of the world are unhelpful and counter-productive. ( Comme pour les armes chimiques fabriqués par les Irakiens). [48] Traditionally, the motivations of the threats have been a response to U.S. provocations, and a number of economic sanctions posed on Iran by the U.S, targeting both the Iranian oil market, as well as other economic sectors.[49][50]). June 24th, 2019 Leo Malden No Comment News détroit d'Ormuz, Iran, United airlines, USA 907 views. Defense Secretary Leon E. Panetta told troops in Texas that the United States would not tolerate Iran's closing of the strait. Les tensions dans le détroit d’Ormuz ne devraient pas nous surprendre. Afin de nous permettre de conserver notre pérennité économique, Des visiteurs dans le détroit d’Ormuz, au large de Bandar Abbas (Iran), le 29 avril 2019. [73], In a July 2012 Foreign Policy article, Gal Luft compared Iran and the Strait of Hormuz to the Ottoman Empire and the Dardanelles, a choke point for shipments of Russian grain a century ago. That afternoon, U.S. secretary of state Mike Pompeo issued a statement accusing Iran of the attacks. Vidéo - Depuis que deux pétroliers ont été attaqués au milieu du détroit d’Ormuz, le 13 juin, la tension monte entre l’Iran et les Etats-Unis. [16], On 8 July 2008, Ali Shirazi, a mid-level clerical aide to Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, was quoted by the student news agency ISNA as telling the Revolutionary Guards, "The Zionist regime is pressuring White House officials to attack Iran. Depuis l’arrivée du président Trump au pouvoir, la tension y est à son comble. Tensions between the United States and Iran have been at their height since an American surveillance drone was shot down last week by Iranian forces. Aljazeera, 2019. "Should We Stay or Should We Go? On 3 July 1988, 290 people were killed when an Iran Air Airbus A300 was shot down over the strait by the United States Navy guided missile cruiser USS Vincennes (CG-49) when it was wrongly identified as a jet fighter. However, Iran’s anti-access/area-denial capabilities are filled with operational difficulties, and the use of these tactics would prompt a military response from the U.S. The court ruling allegedly ordered a fine of $3.6 million. "Iran's Threat to the Strait of Hormuz: A Realist Assessment". It will have a capacity of 1.65 million barrels per day. "Traversing the Persian Gauntlet: U.S. En avril 2015 encore, des bateaux des gardiens de la révolution avaient arraisonné dans le détroit d’Ormuz un porte-conteneurs des îles Marshall. Again, this action would be a risk to energy-security, and the steady flow of oil through the strait. [citation needed] Pressure on prices reflect a combination of uncertainty driven further by China's recent response – reducing oil January 2012 purchases from Iran by 50% compared to those made in 2011. [40], On 22 April 2019, the U.S. ended the oil waivers, which allowed some of Iran’s customers to import Iranian oil, without risking financial penalties as part of the U.S. economic sanctions against Iran. L’Iran a averti vendredi 21 juin qu’il défendrait son territoire contre d’éventuelles représailles des Etats-Unis, tandis que les compagnies aériennes KLM, Qantas, Singapore Airlines et Malaysia Airlines décidaient d’éviter désormais le survol du détroit d’Ormuz. Ce travail s'appuie sur les revenus complémentaires de la publicité et de l'abonnement. [35] "If any disruption happens regarding the sale of Iranian oil, the Strait of Hormuz will definitely be closed," Mohammad Kossari, deputy head of parliament's foreign affairs and national security committee, told the semi-official Fars News Agency. Point de passage stratégique : lieu de circulation important pour les différents acteurs en jeu. [45], In 2020, France deployed about 600 troops at sea and in the air under the CTF474 to protect maritime trade, regional business, and to ease local tensions. [38] Iran's Revolutionary Guards reported they were ready to carry out the action if required. Iran’s use of its territorial advantages in the Strait of Hormuz is therefore more effective as a threat, than if a complete or partial closure of the Strait is actually executed. Iran possess and produces a variety of naval mines, e.g. If Iran were to follow through on its threats to completely or partially close of the Strait, one of the world’s most strategically important maritime choke points, the most effective way would be through the use of its anti-access/area-denial capabilities. Scholars, historians and linguists derive the name "Ormuz" from the local Persian word هورمغ Hur-mogh meaning date palm. USA – Iran tension: what consequences for tourism? Iranian Army chief Ataollah Salehi said the United States had moved an aircraft carrier out of the Persian Gulf because of Iran's naval exercises, and Iran would take action if the ship returned. La tension monte d’un cran dans le détroit d’Ormuz. On 24 January, tensions rose further after the European Union imposed sanctions on Iranian oil. Entre l'Iran et les États-Unis, la guerre des nerfs se poursuit 01:38. Economically, Iran would face consequences in terms of their own dependency on oil revenues and commerce through the Strait, such as medical products and food. Détroit d’Ormuz : « Le monde entier a peur des sanctions américaines et de Trump » - Duration: 36:50. To reduce the risk of collision, ships moving through the Strait follow a Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS): inbound ships use one lane, outbound ships another, each lane being two miles wide. Upon ratifying UNCLOS in August 1989, Oman submitted declarations confirming its 1981 royal decree that only innocent passage is permitted through its territorial sea. Two oil tankers near the strategic Strait of Hormuz were reportedly attacked on Thursday, an assault that left one ablaze and adrift as sailors were evacuated from both vessels and the U.S. Navy rushed to assist amid heightened tensions between Washington and Tehran. On 14 January 2008, U.S. Navy officials appeared to contradict the Pentagon version of the 16 January event, in which the Pentagon had reported that U.S. vessels had almost fired on approaching Iranian boats. However, since the 1979 Iranian Revolution, a significant part of Iran’s military spending has been allocated to the asymmetric warfare approach of its naval capabilities, the anti-access/ anti-denial (A2/AD) systems. (2) Harassment of tanker traffic and damage to the infrastructure, as it was seen in the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. Regain de tension dans le détroit d’Ormuz. [37], In July 2018, Iran again made threats to close the strait. In the same article, Suzanne Maloney, an Iran expert at the Brookings Institution, said, "The expectation is that the U.S. military could address any Iranian threat relatively quickly. Quelque 76 % des exportations de brut passant par ce détroit stratégique étaient destinées l’an dernier aux pays d’Asie (en premier lieu la Chine, l’Inde, le Japon et la Corée du Sud), selon l’EIA. U.S. officials accused Iran of harassing and provoking their naval vessels, but Iranian officials denied the allegations. Il est particulièrement vulnérable en raison de sa faible largeur, 50 kilomètres environ, et de sa profondeur, qui n’excède pas 60 mètres. The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, 2010, p. 41-56, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Center for Strategic and International Studies, USS Hartford and USS New Orleans collision, Navy of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, "How Iran Plans To Bypass The World's Main Oil Chokepoint", "Transit Passage Through International Straits", "The Strait of Hormuz is the world's most important oil transit chokepoint", "2 oil tankers were damaged in possible attacks in the Gulf of Oman", "Chronological lists of ratifications of, accessions and successions to the Convention and the related Agreements as at 26 October 2007", "Accession to the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea Is Unnecessary to Secure U.S. Navigational Rights and Freedoms", "Navy says speed of tanker sucked submarine up to surface", "U.S. Navy Commander Warns Iran: Don't Try Closing Gulf Oil Passageway", "Iran to "hit Tel Aviv, U.S. ships" if attacked", "JTFEX 08-4 "Operation Brimstone" Flexes Allied Force Training", "Three major US naval strike forces due this week in Persian Gulf", "U.S. Navy vessels in Bahrain for evaluation after collision", "Oil jumps over 2% as Iran threatens supplies", "US warns Iran over threat to block oil route", "Oil falls on dollar's rise, Wall Street pullback", "Iran threatens U.S. Navy as sanctions hit economy", "Iran nuclear crisis: Sanctions 'beginning to bite, "State Department: Iran is feeling the pressure - Yahoo! Le pétrole rend le détroit d’Ormuz indispensable à l’économie mondiale. [13] Iran limited the retaliatory attacks to Iraqi shipping, leaving the strait open.[13]. On 28 April 2015, IRGCN patrol boats contacted the Marshall Islands-flagged container ship Maersk Tigris, which was westbound through the strait, and directed the ship to proceed further into Iranian territorial waters, according to a spokesman for the U.S. Defense Department. La région du Golfe et du détroit d’Ormuz est une fois de plus au cœur de vives tensions géopolitiques, sur fond de bras de fer entre l’Iran et les Etats-Unis. Détroit d'Ormuz à Oman: le Kumzari, langue menacée de disparition 01:17. [46], In May 2020, Iran launched missiles at one of their own ships in a friendly fire accident, killing 19 sailors.[47]. "Closing Time: Assessing the Iranian Threat to the Strait of Hormuz". [12], The Tanker War phase of the Iran–Iraq War started when Iraq attacked the oil terminal and oil tankers at Iran's Kharg Island in early 1984. "[70], Strait between the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, 2019 U.S.–Iran tensions and attacks on oil tankers, Iran's Anti-Access/Area-Denial capabilities. Gresh, Geoffrey. Une possibilité serait de commencer par le détroit d’Ormuz et d’entamer un dialogue avec tous les acteurs de cette région. [33] These ships operated in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea off the coast of Iran. It has a maximum capacity of around 2 million barrels per day, over three-quarters of the UAE's 2012 production rate. bottom-moored contact mines; moored and bottom-influence mines; drifting mines and remotely controlled mines. In the article, Iran's strategy beats the materially superior US armed forces. Les Etats-Unis, bien que premier producteur mondial et exportateur net de pétrole, ont ainsi importé en 2018 environ 1,4 million de barils/jour de brut ayant passé par le détroit d’Ormuz, soit 7 % de leur consommation. "[60], In May 2012, a learned article concluded that both the UNCLOS and the 1958 Convention on the High Seas would be violated if Iran followed through on its threat to block passage through the Straits of vessels such as oil tankers, and that the act of passage bears no relation in law to the imposition of economic sanctions. Current Politics and Economics of the Middle East, 2018, p. 139-150. Most notably, this includes the United States Fifth Fleet based in Bahrain, and the Al Udeid Air Base, housing troops from the United States Air Force[68][69], In June 2012, Saudi Arabia reopened the Iraq Pipeline through Saudi Arabia (IPSA), which was confiscated from Iraq in 2001 and travels from Iraq across Saudi Arabia to a Red Sea port. To the left of the straits are great mountains called Asabon and to the right there rises in full view another round and high mountain called Semiramis; between them the passage across the strait is about six hundred stadia; beyond which that very great and broad sea, the Persian Gulf, reaches far into the interior. Pour les pays consommateurs, il paraît difficile de trouver une alternative, en volume comme en qualité, aux bruts extraits de la région du Golfe. Le 18 juillet, Donald Trump affirme qu'un navire américain situé dans le détroit d'Ormuz, l'USS Boxer, a détruit un drone iranien qui s'approchait dangereusement de lui. Aujourd’hui, c’est faux. The lanes are separated by a two-mile-wide "median".[6]. Yet another reading of the tension in the Strait of Hormuz is possible. [citation needed], A 2007 report from the Center for Strategic and International Studies also stated that 17 million barrels passed out of the Persian Gulf daily, but that oil flows through the Strait accounted for roughly 40% of all world-traded oil. [51] In terms of the international opinion, the threat of closing the Strait can severely damage Iran’s relations to states who are engaging with them economically. During the 1970s, neither Iran or Oman attempted to impede the passage of warships through the strait, but in the 1980s, both countries asserted claims that were different from customary (old) law. Une partrouille maritime iranienne dans le détroit d'Ormuz, le 30 avril 2019. Il a menacé à plusieurs reprises de bloquer le détroit d’Ormuz en cas d’action militaire américaine dans la zone. Principaux ports autour du détroit d’Ormuz. Le mois suivant, des patrouilleurs iraniens tiraient des coups de semonce dans une apparente tentative d’interception d’un navire commercial battant pavillon singapourien. If Iran is to block the maritime traffic through the Strait, the violation of international norms and damage to the global economy would likely end up in international support to the U.S. acting against Iran. Il est parsemé d’îles désertiques ou peu habitées, mais d’une grande importance stratégique : les îles iraniennes d’Ormuz, et celles de Qeshm et de Larak, face à la rive iranienne de Bandar Abbas. Examples of these are as follows: • Coastal air defences, long-range artillery and anti-ship missiles. I recommend and emphasize to the American carrier not to return to the Persian Gulf", he said. [20], On 27 December 2011, Iranian Vice President Mohammad-Reza Rahimi threatened to cut off oil supply from the Strait of Hormuz should economic sanctions limit, or cut off, Iranian oil exports. Plus de 500 navires avaient été détruits ou endommagés. La fermeture du détroit d'Ormuz, ne serait-ce que pour une période de deux semaines, entraînerait des conséquences catastrophiques sur l'économie mondiale. "Can Iran close the Strait of Hormuz?". Position stratégique sur le Detroit d’Ormuz, hôte depuis 2009 d’une importante base militaire française à Abou Dhabi, participation militaire en 2011 au conflit en Lybie, ‘guerre’ interne depuis 2013/14 contre les Frères Musulmans, tension perpétuelle avec l’Iran et… Dubaï, Abou-Dhabi, des économies florissantes, un développement fulgurant. [23], On 3 January 2012, Iran threatened to take action if the U.S. Navy moves an aircraft carrier back into the Persian Gulf. The report stated that more than 85% of these crude oil exports went to Asian markets, with Japan, India, South Korea and China the largest destinations. Si l’Arabie saoudite et les Emirats ont établi un réseau d’oléoducs pour contourner le détroit, ces voies alternatives ne convoient que des volumes limités (3 millions de barils/jour en 2018, pour une capacité totale de 6,8 millions) et elles ne sont pas épargnées, comme l’a montré en mai l’attaque d’un oléoduc saoudien par des rebelles yéménites. Vous avez choisi de ne pas accepter le dépôt de cookies, notamment les cookies de publicité personnalisée. The resemblance of this word with the name of the Zoroastrian god هرمز Hormoz (a variant of Ahura Mazda) has resulted in the popular belief[citation needed][neutrality is disputed] that these words are related. En 2018, environ 21 millions de barils de brut y circulaient quotidiennement, selon l’Agence américaine de l’Energie (EIA). This was presumed to be in reference to the seizure of an Iranian Tanker, Grace 1, bound for Syria in Gibraltar a few days prior. Daring, which is the lead ship of her class is one of the "most advanced warships" in the world, and will undertake its first mission in the Persian Gulf. [62] These capabilities are meant to prevent advanced navies or other opponents to operate in the Strait and the Persian Gulf, and would be of particular concern to the U.S.[63] In 2016, it was assessed that Iran’s military strength was weak, even compared to regional rivals. Ne pas oublier que les USA sont auto-producteur de 80% de leur consommation de pétrole, ils sont plus gros producteur que l Arabie Saoudite et seront autosuffisants dans quelques années. [10] In July 1972, Oman also expanded its territorial sea to 12 nautical miles (22 km) by decree. News", "Royal Navy sends its mightiest ship to take on the Iranian show of force in the Gulf", "U.S. The Navy's regional commander, Vice Admiral Kevin Cosgriff, said the Iranians had "neither anti-ship missiles nor torpedoes" and he "wouldn't characterize the posture of the US 5th Fleet as afraid of these small boats".[15]. Le détroit d'Ormuz est stratégique dans le commerce maritime du pétrole. info) Arabic: مَضيق هُرمُز‎ ‎ Maḍīq Hurmuz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.It provides the only sea passage from the Persian Gulf to the open ocean and is one of the world's most strategically important choke points. Atta Kenare, AFP . Les récentes attaques de tankers en mer d’Oman puis l’épisode du drone américain abattu attisent le spectre de perturbations significatives du trafic et de déstabilisation du marché pétrolier : le cours du baril de WTI s’est ainsi envolé de quelque 6 % jeudi à New York. [41], Aljazeera quoted Major-General Mohammad Baqeri of the Iranian Armed Forces, stating "We are not after closing the Strait of Hormuz but if the hostility of the enemies increases, we will be able to do so". On 18 April 1988, the U.S. Navy waged a one-day battle against Iranian forces in and around the strait. It is widely acknowledged,[weasel words] that even a partial closure of the Strait would wreak havoc on the global oil markets and pose a severe threat to energy security. [70], In July 2012, the UAE began using the new Habshan–Fujairah oil pipeline from the Habshan fields in Abu Dhabi to the Fujairah oil terminal on the Gulf of Oman, effectively bypassing the Strait of Hormuz. [22] Despite an initial 2% rise in oil prices, oil markets ultimately did not react significantly to the Iranian threat, with oil analyst Thorbjoern Bak Jensen of Global Risk Management concluding that "they cannot stop the flow for a longer period due to the amount of U.S. hardware in the area". Cela représente environ 21 % de la consommation mondiale de pétrole et un tiers du brut transitant par voie maritime dans le monde. [63], • Kilo-class submarines and midget submarines. According to a 2012 article in The Christian Science Monitor, it simulated an attempt by Iran to close the strait. [2][3], A third of the world's liquefied natural gas and almost 25% of total global oil consumption passes through the strait, making it a highly important strategic location for international trade.[3][4]. Nevertheless, Iran continued to discuss the impact of shutting the Strait on world oil markets, saying that any disruption of supply would cause a shock to markets that "no country" could manage. [7] [1] On the north coast lies Iran, and on the south coast the United Arab Emirates and Musandam, an exclave of Oman. He indicated that tensions involving the Strait of Hormuz are leading those currently dependent on shipments from the Persian Gulf to find alternative shipping capabilities. [54], A 2008 article in International Security contended that Iran could seal off or impede traffic in the Strait for a month, and an attempt by the U.S. to reopen it would be likely to escalate the conflict.